Good books to grab if you want to study electronic structure theory:
The obvious one is Szabo & Ostlund (~7$ on ‘zon) although it’s nowadays quite antiquated.
If you can instead find Helgaker & Jorgenson’s book, I would read it instead.
To learn about Density Functional Theory, Burke’s free manifesto is good.
Of course electronic structure is just a drop in the bucket of science, and I have found these other books quite illuminating:
Tuckerman’s Stat. Mech
Tannor’s quantum dynamics textbook
Nitzan’s book about Condensed Phase Chemical Dynamics
Quantum Many-Body textbook of Fetter and Walecka (a cheap dover gem)
You won’t meet many students who have a mastery of all-of-the above textbooks, but each is very useful for it’s own reasons.
Good papers for all young theoretical chemists to read:
This is a by-no-means exhaustive, subjective list of seminal papers in the area of theoretical chemistry that I will add to slowly. Reading these papers is useful both for the subject of the paper, but also to see how genuinely transformational science is done. To students with a good background this list may seem silly, but to students just beginning it could be quite useful.
Transition state theory: http://jcp.aip.org/resource/1/jcpsa6/v3/i2/p107_s1
Parinello & Rahman: http://jcp.aip.org/resource/1/jcpsa6/v80/i2/p860_s1
Quantum Many-Body Problem:
The Failure of PT: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00698753?LI=true
Becke’s functional ingredients: http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevA.38.3098