Today on Biomechanics in the Wild, we will be talking with Dr. Carl Payton, a Professor of Sports Biomechanics at Manchester Metropolitan University in Manchester, England. He researches the movement of paraswimmers and is currently working with a team to develop a new classification system for the International Paralympics Committee. He also serves as a support scientist for Great Britain’s Olympic and Paralympic swimming teams.
Paraswimmers are allocated different classifications depending on their disability. Swimmers with a motor coordination, mobility, or limb deficiency are split into rankings S1 through S10, with S10 being those swimmers with the least level of impairment. Swimmers with a visual impairment (S11-S13) or a intellectual disability (S14) are also split into different classes. The goal of this system is to allow the swimmers to compete with swimmers of a similar ability level, to create a level competition field.
Have you ever wondered what happens to your heart when you begin to consistently exercise? How does the heart change and why? Well, the answer may not be very complicated.
During intense exercise, our heart is put under stress as it has to rapidly pump blood throughout the body. The heart often responds to this by increasing its size, but it does not do this like our other muscles. The heart has to add mass to its existing cells instead of adding new cells as we only have a limited amount of cardiac muscles; the amount we are born with is all we have. The health of our hearts is important. In the US, heart disease and injury are the number 1 cause of death. So, it is in our best interests to learn more about our health so as to minimize our risks of heart-related ailments.
With their sandpaper skin, cartilage skeleton, electroreceptive sensors, and rows of dangerous teeth, sharks fascinate many people. However, even within this distinctive group the hammerhead sharks that make up the Sphyrnidae family have attracted a special attention due to the unusual shapes of their namesake heads, called cephalofoils. Several evolutionary benefits of the cephalofoil have been proposed by researchers. The wide hammer-shaped head may allow the shark to house more sensory receptors in its snout, to bludgeon prey, and to move and maneuver through the water more easily. Here we will address the question posed by the third theory: Does the cephalofoil found on hammerhead sharks provide an advantage in moving and maneuvering underwater?
Because of the film Bee Movie, many people at one point were intrigued by the idea that bumblebees should not physically be able to fly due to their large bodies and tiny wings. But, they fly anyway. Technology is advanced enough to study bee wing movement and determine that they produce enough lift to allow them to fly, disproving the previous notion. Similarly, Gray’s Paradox for a long time inferred that dolphins should not be able to swim nearly as fast as they do. But, they still consistently swim at speeds over twenty miles per hour. It was not until recent history that advancements allowed researchers to determine why they are able to reach such high speeds.
Sailfish, or Istiophorus platypterus, are one of the most recognizable fishes in the ocean due to their large sail-like dorsal fin. But, did you know that they are also iconic because they are one of the fastest swimmers in the ocean?
Usain Bolt, Michael Jordan, and Wayne Gretzky are arguably some of the greatest athletes of all time. You watch them on the television breaking record, winning titles or making impossible shots, and you can’t help to wonder, how are they that good? Do they use some secret training method, maybe even a special diet? Possibly, they are genetically gifted?
In the aptly titled poem The Chambered Nautilus, Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. praises the eponymous cephalopod for its elegant shape and vibrant colors. The ship of pearl, as Wendell calls it, might not be the swiftest vessel; but Thomas R. Neil and Graham N. Askew’s research indicates that the chambered nautilus might be among the most energy efficient ships in the seven seas.
In the majority of athletic events, men have long outperformed women. This is due to a combination of factors including physiological differences, societal norms, and legislation. But in the last few decades, there has been a noticeable swing in the realm of endurance athletics. Now more than ever, women are closing the gap with respect to their male counterparts in ultra-long distance races, including running, biking and swimming. In some cases, women are even outperforming men at the elite level, winning a number of top-tier events. So what are the reasons for this changing of the guard, and why is it happening now?